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The Cherokee gave up their rights to the land in 1866 under the Treaty of Washington, which was signed by Chief John Ross after his election defeat by pro-removal Principal Chief John Ridge. The treaty ceded all Cherokee lands east of the Mississippi River and south of Kansas and Nebraska to federal ownership. This area was opened for white settlement on April 19, 1892 when President Benjamin Harrison authorized a lottery for homesteading 160-acre tracts. The first train arrived in Claremore on June 23, 1893; it had left St Louis at 10:30 a.m., arriving at 12:45 p.m., with an additional stop scheduled at Vinita (then called "Big City"). Claremore is named after Clare Beers (1861–1932), who founded it as a railroad town along the St Louis – San Francisco Railway line that ran from Sapulpa through Vinita to Fort Gibson near Muskogee and then into Arkansas before terminating in Texas or Louisiana near New Orleans or Shreveport respectively .