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The earliest archaeological site in Iowa is the Erdman Site, a prehistoric Native American village and burial ground located near Dubuque. It was occupied during three different periods over more than 2,000 years between about 3000 BC and 1700 BC. The first people arrived around 4000 BCE during the Middle Archaic period; they were hunter-gatherers who lived in small villages of 10 to 20 housing units consisting of large circular or oval-shaped lodges built with wooden poles, woven mats made from rushes or hides, grasses and bark. They fished for salmon along rivers using nets cast with hooks made from bones tied to willow sticks; other fish may have been speared as well as hunted for their meat (see Fishtail point).