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The first Council Bluffs City Charter was granted in 1851, and the city operated under the charter until 1874. That year, Omaha and Council Bluffs merged to form "the twin cities of Omaha-Council Bluffs", which remained a single city until they separated into two distinct entities on July 1, 1902. The term "Twin Cities" is a reference to their shared riverfront location (they are not actually adjacent). In 1803 or 1796 (sources vary), Jean Pierre Cabanné established an outpost near present-day Fort Calhoun. Cabanné erected a trading post at this site in after Thomas Jefferson had negotiated the Louisiana Purchase with France during his presidency from 1801–1809; however it is unclear whether he did so before or after Lewis & Clark's expedition passed through this area on its way westward across North America in early June of that same year.