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In 1942, Japanese forces invaded the Philippines. The American-Filipino force on Luzon was ordered to retreat to Bataan in December, where they established a defensive line. For the next three months Allied forces tried to hold off the Japanese advance but were eventually pushed back until their position became untenable and they surrendered on April 9, 1942. During this time most of their equipment was lost or abandoned; as a result it had become increasingly difficult for them to fight effectively without heavy weapons such as artillery and tanks that were left behind during their withdrawal from Bataan into nearby Corregidor Island at Manila Bay.