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Lucca was founded by the Etruscans and became a Roman colony in 180 BC. The rectangular grid of its historical centre preserves the Roman street plan, and the Piazza San Michele occupies the site of the ancient forum. Traces of later tufa walls are evident in some locations. In 1786, Lucca was conquered by Napoleon and went through a period of Napoleonic rule that lasted until 1815 (except for French occupation from 1801 to 1805). Lucca hosted those responsible for drafting Italy's constitution at Villa Glori, including Cesare Balbo, who were exiled there from Milan; this led to their defection two years later to Venice with their ideas. In October 1944 it was bombed by Anglo-American allied planes as part of Operation Overlord.