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Karur is also known as "Cotton City of India". The city has a population of 1,33,000. It was formerly called Kallanai (Tamil: கல்லா ṉaḷ) and later came to be known as Karuvoor (Tamil: [kaɾuːvʊɻ]). The name Karur is derived from the Tamil word 'Karu' which means cotton in Tamil language. In ancient times this region was famous for its cotton production and hence it became popular by the name karuvoor or karur . The place got its present name only after the Vijayanagara rulers made it their capital under Tirumalai Nayakkar in 1559 CE. Later on his son Raghunatha Nayakkar built fort around 1610 CE.. This town remained under Thanjavur Maratha kingdom till 1736 AD when Chanda Sahib captured it along with Thanjavura.