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The city was founded by the Gurjars during the medieval period. In 1805, Ranjit Singh captured Ludhiana and it became a part of his Sikh Empire based in Lahore. During the British Raj, Ludhiana grew into an important industrial centre for cotton and woolen textiles from around the world. It also became a major center of bicycle production; its large-scale manufacturing led to it being known as "Cycle City". The urban infrastructure underwent considerable expansion with establishment of modern civic facilities such as theatres, cinemas and parks; however many old buildings still retain their traditional style in spite of modernization efforts made since independence. After India's partition in 1947, Punjab province was split between India (including present-day Haryana) and Pakistan but later on most parts were included into Indian territory through annexation by exchange with East Punjab States Union (PEPSU). Ludhiana is home to several textile mills operated by small entrepreneurs called "kiranas".