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Aix-en-Provence is the historical capital of Provence. The region around Aix-en-Provence was already inhabited in Neolithic times, but first appears in written history as a Gallic settlement before being Romanised and incorporated into the Empire. It became an important centre under Augustus, who gave it its Latin name Aquae Sextiae (“Waters of Sextius”). In the 4th century it became part of Sertorian Gaul with a population estimated at 9,000–10,000 inhabitants. After this point though its importance gradually declined: by 500 AD there were only 545 people still living within its walls. The town's Roman amphitheatre was converted into a church dedicated to Saint Genesius after 470, and two Romanesque churches were built on top of each other during this period. A bishopric from c.