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History [ edit ] The town was founded in the 10th century by William of Gâtinais, and became an important centre for the textile industry during the Middle Ages. It was at that time a fortified city with walls, protected by 22 towers and seven gates. The castle (now destroyed) had a perimeter of 1,400 m (4,600 ft). In 1356 it fell to Bertrand du Guesclin after a siege of 14 months. Charles VII made Châtellerault one of his strongholds against Louis XI; but in 1562 it surrendered to Francis II de Bourbon without resistance. Henry IV made Chatellerault his headquarters before he defeated Guyenne on 3 May 1592, then again when he returned from exile on 23 March 1610.:p.